Letters in Oncology Science 2019-04-12T20:33:34+02:00 Wiktoria Suchorska Open Journal Systems <p><em>Letters in Oncology Science</em> is an interdisciplinary quarterly journal of the Oncology Centre of Wielkopolska (Polonia Major) Region, aimed at researchers and practicing specialist physicians engaged in studies in the following areas:</p> <ul> <li class="show"><strong>oncology</strong>,&nbsp;</li> <li class="show"><strong>diagnostics of oncologic diseases</strong>,&nbsp;</li> <li class="show"><strong>planning treatment of oncologic diseases</strong>,&nbsp;</li> <li class="show"><strong>radiotherapy</strong>,&nbsp;</li> <li class="show"><strong>chemotherapy</strong>,&nbsp;</li> <li class="show"><strong>immunotherapy</strong>,&nbsp;</li> <li class="show"><strong>dosimetry</strong>,&nbsp;</li> <li class="show"><strong>nuclear medicine</strong>,&nbsp;</li> <li class="show"><strong>research of cancer biology,</strong></li> <li class="show"><strong>molecular biology of cancer,</strong></li> <li class="show"><strong>oncologic care,</strong></li> <li class="show"><strong>radiobiology,</strong></li> <li class="show"><strong>physiotherapy.</strong></li> </ul> Comparison of dose distributions for 6MV and 15MV energy for Total Body Irradiation (TBI). 2019-04-12T20:33:34+02:00 Anna Natalia Kowalik Tomasz Koper Sebastian Adamczyk Julian Malicki <p><strong>Introduction</strong><br> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Contemporary radiotherapy uses a number of highly specialized irradiation techniques dedicated to well-defined clinical diagnoses. Among these methods are techniques to irradiate the skin (TSEI), bone marrow (TMI) or the whole body of the patient (TBI).<br> TBI has over the last century been used in the treatment of a variety of conditions, both benign and malignant. However, its importance has increased with the development of knowledge about the impact of ionizing radiation on the human body and the development of clinical dosimetry techniques. At present, however, this method is primarily used in the treatment of hyperplasia.</p> <p><br> <strong>Aim</strong> <br> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The general aim of the study is to compare dose distributions at selected points of the anthropomorphic phantom under full body radiation conditions for X: 6MV and 15MV radiation.<br> Specific objectives are defined: comparison of percent depth and function of photon emission profiles: 6MV and 15MV measured with radiofrequency hydrophobic films; measurement of doses in selected cross sections of the anthropomorphic phantom.</p> <p><br> <strong>Material and method</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; A number of measuring devices and materials used in daily work by staff of the Medical Physics Department of the Greater Poland Cancer Centre were used to carry out the study part, but Alderson's anthropomorphic phantom and the radiochromic films in the form of point detectors were essential. In addition to each step of the research part, a special measuring system was prepared to reproduce the conditions prevailing during the TBI session as closely as possible. The research was carried out in three stages: Calibration of radiochromic films;<br> PDD and OCR measurement for: 6MV and 15MV photon beam under TBI conditions;<br> Measurement of dose distribution in selected anthropomorphic phantom's cross sections using radiochromic films in the form of point detectors.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Results</strong><br> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; For the lateral field irradiated with 6MV photon beam, the maximum compliance (less than 2%) was obtained for the elbows at the entrance and in the center of the phantom; abdomen for the detector positioned in the center of the phantom, the lungs at the entrance and the arms in the middle, and the neck at the position of the film at the entrance. In the case of the lateral field X 15MV, the highest correspondence occurred for the points: the head and the PC in the position of the film in the center of the phantom and the entrance neck. In the case of AP/PA fields for 6MV energy, the highest compatibility was obtained for the mediastinum in all positions of the film. A small difference was also obtained for the points: head in the middle and at the output of the beam; as well as PC on the output. For AP/PA X 15MV fields, the highest dose compliance not exceeding 1% was obtained for the location of the neck - at the beam entrance, and the lung and mediastinum at the detector position at the center of the phantom.</p> <p><br> <strong>Conclusions</strong><br> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; On the basis of measurements of dose distribution at selected points of the patient's body for radiation X: 6MV and 15MV in the TBI procedure, the following conclusions can be made:<br> Gafchromic EBT (radiochromic type film) can be successfully used for dosimetric measurements, among others. Due to their properties, such as the ability to cut from the sheet of film spot detectors of any shape and size, flexibility, low sensitivity to daylight, resistance to humidity, etc.; Their main drawback is the high cost of buying films and the long time required to prepare the detectors and then read the measured doses. Because of the low popularity of point-based EBTs in point dosing, further research is needed to improve their response to ionizing radiation.<br> There is a noticeable increase in the difference between the dose calculated and measured as the distance between the position of individual detectors increases from the center point.<br> The difference between the dose measured and planned in any of the cases examined does not exceed 9%. The measurements show that the method used is fast, accurate, and can be successfully used as a validation tool not only for the TBI procedure but also for other methods of cancer radiotherapy.</p> 2019-03-12T07:55:04+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Letters in Oncology Science Pomiary rozkładów dawek poza obszarem terapeutycznym na wybranych głębokościach i odległościach od osi wiązki. 2019-04-08T20:25:09+02:00 Anna Kowalik Celem pracy było zbadanie dawek poza obszarem terapeutycznym na wybranych głębokościach i odległościach od osi wiązki (CAX). Na potrzeby badania zaprojektowano i skonstruowano fantom wodny o wymiarach 45cm x 35cm x 90cm, w którym umieszczone zostały detektory termoluminescencyjne (TLD 100). Detektory umieszczone zostały na czterech głębokościach : 2cm, 5cm, 8cm, i 15 cm oraz czterech odległościach (dla każdej głębkości) od osi wiązki: 10, 20, 30 i 40 cm. W osi wiązki zadano dawkę 76 Gy, co odpowiadało 7503 jednostkom monitorowym (MU). Dawka w odległości 10 cm od osi wiązki i 2 cm głębokości była bliska dawce na głębokości 15 cm i wynosiła średnio 2,3 Gy. Pomiary dawek pokazały silną zależność dawki w zależności od odległości od osi wiązki. Dla dystansu 40 cm od CAX na głębokości 2 cm, zmierzono dawkę równą 0,27 Gy (SD= 0,025), na 15cm od CAX 0,116 (SD=0,066). W odległości 30 cm od osi wiązki zależność dawki wraz z głębokością była znacząca na głębokości 2 cm – 0.524 Gy (SD=0,251) oraz na głębokości 15 cm – 0.242 Gy (SD=0,564). 20 cm od osi wiązki na 2 cm głębokości wynosiła 0,925 Gy (SD=0,483) i głębokości 15 cm 0,517 (SD=0,160) 2019-03-14T07:58:51+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Letters in Oncology Science Mammografia 3D z tomosyntezą. Kontrola jakości – regulacje prawne i metodyka pomiaru średniej dawki gruczołowej. 2019-04-11T20:31:29+02:00 Krzysztof Matuszewski Piotr Romański <p>Mammografia 3D z tomosyntezą jest efektem rozwoju technologii w obrazowaniu na przestrzeni ostatnich kilku dekad. Nieodłącznym skutkiem tego rozwoju jest wzrost wartości diagnostycznej badań a tym samym wzrost wykrywalności nowotworów piersi. Jednym z elementów warunkujących utrzymanie wysokiej czułości mammografii jest kontrola jakości urządzeń stosowanych w mammografii z tomosyntezą. Celem niniejszego artykułu jest zwrócenie uwagi na regulacje prawne dotyczące kontroli jakości urządzeń stosowanych w mammografii 3D z tomosyntezą oraz opis metodologii pomiaru średniej dawki gruczołowej.</p> 2019-03-12T07:56:21+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Letters in Oncology Science Genetic background of thyroid carcinomas – selected issues 2019-04-09T20:27:13+02:00 Joanna Wróblewska Andrzej Marszałek <p>Thyroid neoplasms are the most common endocrine system among tumors. Over the last decades, the number of new cases has increased significantly and continues to show an upward trend. At the basis of the neoplastic disease are changes occurring in cells at the molecular level, mainly somatic mutations in certain oncogenes or suppressor genes. Molecular profile analysis in the field of somatic mutations in the genes associated with thyroid cancer allows to broaden knowledge about the molecular basis of cancer and to understand the role of their genetic basis in the development of the disease, its progression and prognosis of successful therapy. Mutations in genes from the <em>RAS</em> family (<em>NRAS, KRAS, HRAS</em>) are most often associated with the follicular type of thyroid cancer, but are also detected in the case of the anaplastic type. However, mutations in the <em>BRAF</em> gene are associated with papillary type, but may also occur in the anaplastic type. Mutations in the promoter region of the <em>TERT</em> gene are associated with higher tumor aggressiveness, metastases and worse prognosis for the patients.</p> 2019-03-14T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Letters in Oncology Science Późne działania niepożądane uzupełniającego leczenia systemowego u chorych z rozpoznaniem raka piersi. 2019-04-10T20:29:08+02:00 Paulina Myśliwiec <p align="LEFT">W ostatnich latach znacząco poprawiły się wyniki leczenia raka piersi. W dużej mierze związane jest to ze stosowaniem uzupełniającego leczenia systemowego.</p><p align="LEFT">Optymalna chemioterapia i immunoterapia oraz kompleksowa hormonoterapia przyczyniły się do wydłużenia czasu przeżycia całkowitego i czasu wolnego od choroby, jednak leczenie nieuchronnie wiąże się z występowaniem działań niepożądanych, które mogą wpływać na jakość życia chorych.</p><p align="LEFT"> </p><p align="LEFT">Wczesne działania niepożądane leczenia systemowego ustępują maksymalnie do 6 miesięcy od zakończenia terapii. Późne objawy uboczne mogą utrzymywać się do końca życia pacjentów, a metody ich leczenia są często niesatysfakcjonujące.</p> 2019-03-14T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Letters in Oncology Science