Letters in Oncology Science https://journals.wco.pl/los <p><em>Letters in Oncology Science</em> is an interdisciplinary quarterly journal of the Oncology Centre of Wielkopolska (Polonia Major) Region, aimed at researchers and practicing specialist physicians engaged in studies in the following areas:</p> <ul> <li class="show"><strong>oncology</strong>,&nbsp;</li> <li class="show"><strong>diagnostics of oncologic diseases</strong>,&nbsp;</li> <li class="show"><strong>planning treatment of oncologic diseases</strong>,&nbsp;</li> <li class="show"><strong>radiotherapy</strong>,&nbsp;</li> <li class="show"><strong>chemotherapy</strong>,&nbsp;</li> <li class="show"><strong>immunotherapy</strong>,&nbsp;</li> <li class="show"><strong>dosimetry</strong>,&nbsp;</li> <li class="show"><strong>nuclear medicine</strong>,&nbsp;</li> <li class="show"><strong>research of cancer biology,</strong></li> <li class="show"><strong>molecular biology of cancer,</strong></li> <li class="show"><strong>oncologic care,</strong></li> <li class="show"><strong>radiobiology,</strong></li> <li class="show"><strong>physiotherapy.</strong></li> </ul> Greater Poland Cancer Centre en-US Letters in Oncology Science 2543-6724 Improving radiation therapy in breast cancer presented at the ESTRO 37 conference https://journals.wco.pl/los/article/view/148 Maria Olmińska Copyright (c) 2021 Letters in Oncology Science http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-01-04 2021-01-04 17 4 1 7 10.21641/los.2020.17.4.148 Will a radical hysterectomy involving tissue morphogenesis (total mesometrial resection – TMMR) with therapeutic lymph node dissection (tLND) by M. Höckel find its place in the surgical treatment of the uterine cervix carcionoma? https://journals.wco.pl/los/article/view/186 <p>A radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection is the standard operative treatment in patients with diagnosed IB-IIA degree by FIGO 2018 invasive uterine cervix carcinoma.</p> <p>A concept and technique of radical hysterectomy was created at the end of the 19<sup>th</sup> Century based on the then knowledge on the progression of neoplasms. In the space of years, in order to limit the scale of side effects, subsequent modifications of the radical hysterectomy technique appeared, however still on the basis of the same model of the neoplasm’s propagation concerning the accidental infiltration of surrounding tissues promoted by reduced mechanical resistance.</p> <p>In 2003 Prof. M. Höckel was the first to present a new concept of radical hysterectomy, which originated in the studies on the local development of the tumour.</p> <p>In comparison with the other methods of radical surgery, radical hysterectomy involving tissue morphogenesis (total mesometrial resection – TMMR) by M. Höckel with therapeutic lymph node dissection (tLND), apart from the maintenance of the oncologic efficacy range with concomitant conservation of the vegetative innervation, allows the improvement of a therapeutic index in tumours with unfavourable prognostic factors, at the same time generating a small number of post-operative complications.</p> <p>It should also be noted that the fundamental feature distinguishing tLND-assisted TMMR from the classic radical hysterectomy is a possibility to avoid a supplementary radiotherapy with no effect on future outcomes.</p> Kamila Kaźmierczak Witold Cholewiński Błażej Nowakowski Copyright (c) 2021 Letters in Oncology Science http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-01-04 2021-01-04 17 4 8 14 10.21641/los.2020.17.4.186 Pathogenesis of side effects of radiation therapy in normal tissues https://journals.wco.pl/los/article/view/189 <p>The key challenge in radiotherapy is to select the appropriate maximum doses of radiation reaching the cancer cells while minimizing the damage to healthy tissue. The success of radiotherapy in the treatment of tumor depends mainly on the total dose administered during treatment whereas the tolerance to radiation of normal tissues is a certain limitation in the selection of maximum doses. In order to avoid any adverse effects after radiotherapy, certain dose thresholds should not be exceeded. The risk of radiation damage to normal tissues increases with the total dose, the number of radiotherapy fractions and the volume of tissues that have been irradiated. Patients under 10 years of age and patients over 70 are particularly susceptible to complications.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Radiation used in radiotherapy causes damage to cellular structures responsible for basic cellular processes. X-rays collide with electrons causing ionization of molecules. These electrons lose the ability to function properly within the cell. In the course of this process, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA - deoxyribonucleic acid) is damaged, which can cause mutations. The most susceptible to radiation damage are hematopoietic cells, endothelial cells, mucous membranes and the gastrointestinal tract. Thus, several effects can be distinguished following the contact of a living cell with ionizing radiation. The first of them can be such a big damage to the cell that it may be able to perform its functions and may be killed. The cell may also lose its ability to reproduce, although it may remain alive. The DNA code might be damaged so much that the resulting cell copies would be significantly different from the original cell. Radiation may also not cause side effects or maid have not effect on the cell at all.</p> Karolina Rzewuska Copyright (c) 2021 Letters in Oncology Science http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-01-04 2021-01-04 17 4 9 15 10.21641/los.2020.17.4.189 Polski https://journals.wco.pl/los/article/view/190 <p>Lung cancer is one of the most common oncological diseases worldwide. The critical element of the lung cancer patients’ management is an accurate and fast diagnosis. The radioisotope techniques of imaging can be helpful in the lung cancer diagnosis, however the sensitivity and the specificity depend on the type of used radiopharmaceutical.</p> Lena Vierstra Agata Pietrzak Copyright (c) 2021 Letters in Oncology Science http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-01-04 2021-01-04 17 4 16 21 10.21641/los.2020.17.4.190 Epigenetics as a promising scientific field in the context of head and neck cancer treatment https://journals.wco.pl/los/article/view/191 <p>Head and neck cancer (HNC) is the sixth most prevalent cancer worldwide, representing more than a half million of the new cases every year. Due to high genetic and histologic diversity of head and neck cancers, their molecular pathogenesis is based on complex process including disorders driven not only by accumulation of genetic alterations, but also changes in epigenetic landscape. The epigenetic variations in HNC include DNA methylation, histone modifications, non-coding RNA activity and RNA methylation. Some of the epigenetic alterations promote cancer formation and progression by controlling the expression machinery. Consequently, those modifications can be used as biomarkers for clinical detection and surveillance of cancer and will reveal new therapeutic opportunities for cancer patients.</p> Kamila Romanowska Copyright (c) 2021 Letters in Oncology Science http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-01-04 2021-01-04 17 4 22 27 10.21641/los.2020.17.4.191 Ułożenie, funkcja i zmienność powrózka naczyniowo-nerwowego klatki piersiowej: praca przeglądowa https://journals.wco.pl/los/article/view/175 <p>Thoracic wall is being supplied by the neurovascular bundle. In its course the most protected structure is the intercostal vein. The corresponding artery runs below, being in position more vulnerable to damages than the vein. The intercostal nerve is the most exposed for any detriment in case of stab wounds as it’s the most inferior of all the neurovascular structures in the costal groove. Despite the uniqueness of the neurovascular bundle layout, it has a huge clinical significance in procedures like thoracocentesis, thoracotomy or intercostal nerve block.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Dominika Janowska Copyright (c) 2021 Letters in Oncology Science http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-01-05 2021-01-05 17 4 28 34 10.21641/los.2020.17.4.175