Review of radiotherapeutic techniques related to irradiation of rectal cancer.
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rectal cancer
organs at risk
treatment planning

How to Cite

Pańczyszyn, M., Bąk, O., Kijeska, W., Kosmowska, J., & Skrobała, A. (2022). Review of radiotherapeutic techniques related to irradiation of rectal cancer. Letters in Oncology Science, 19(1).


Rectal cancer is the third most common cancer in men and the second in women worldwide. Depending on the stage of the cancer, radiotherapy is used as the only treatment of rectal cancer or as a pre-operative or post-operative adjuvant therapy. The aim of the study was to review historical and current methods of rectal radiotherapy techniques. The study presents the technique of conventional 2D radiotherapy (two-dimension radiation therapy) and three-dimensional 3D radiotherapy (three-dimensional radiation therapy). Finally, the currently used dynamic radiotherapy techniques are discussed, such as: IMRT (intensity modulated radiation therapy), VMAT (voulemtric modulated arc therapy) and the helical technique (helical therapy). The paper focuses on implementing the given techniques and the description of the influence of a given technique on the dose distribution in the Planning Target Volume PTV and doses in critical organs in rectal cancer radiotherapy.
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