AbstractHead and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) takes origin from squamous cells of mucous membranes of the mouth, nose and throat. Despite significant advances in conventional therapies, the 5-year progression-free survival rate in patients with locally advanced HNSCC HPV (-) still does not exceed 50%. Low survival rate in combination with high toxicity of used therapies underline the necessity of introducing new therapeutic strategies. Current research confirms that the immune system plays a key role in the pathogenesis of HNSCC. Better understanding of molecular mechanisms responsible for the immune evasion of cancer cells and exact investigation of molecular pathways responsible for HNSCC development could help to develop more effective therapies. Considering the fact that in HNSCC course there are significant changes in the molecular mechanisms of the immune system. In this review we summarize the role of immune system in immune-surveillance escape of tumour cells
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