Thyroid neoplasms are the most common endocrine system among tumors. Over the last decades, the number of new cases has increased significantly and continues to show an upward trend. At the basis of the neoplastic disease are changes occurring in cells at the molecular level, mainly somatic mutations in certain oncogenes or suppressor genes. Molecular profile analysis in the field of somatic mutations in the genes associated with thyroid cancer allows to broaden knowledge about the molecular basis of cancer and to understand the role of their genetic basis in the development of the disease, its progression and prognosis of successful therapy. Mutations in genes from the RAS family (NRAS, KRAS, HRAS) are most often associated with the follicular type of thyroid cancer, but are also detected in the case of the anaplastic type. However, mutations in the BRAF gene are associated with papillary type, but may also occur in the anaplastic type. Mutations in the promoter region of the TERT gene are associated with higher tumor aggressiveness, metastases and worse prognosis for the patients.
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